Risk assessment by seasonal variation of well water fluoride in Japan

Ryouichi Satou, Haruka Aikawa, Naoki Sugihara

Abstract

This study clarified the existence of seasonal variations of Fluoride concentrations in multiple wells with different depths, and determined the appropriate time to assess chronic Fluoride toxicity considering these variations. There was up to 3.6 times more seasonal variation in F concentration at the same point. The mean F ion concentration was the lowest at 0.0766 ± 0.0197 mg/L in March, and highest at 0.2412 ± 0.0345 mg/L in December. The hazard quotients (HQ) were all < 1 at all points, and the risk of chronic Fluoride toxicity in children was low. It is necessary to carry out multiple measurements, including in periods with low rainfall, due to seasonal variations.

Keywords

Fluoride; Risk assessment; Seasonal variation; hazard quotient; Well water

Full Text:

PDF

References

Marinho V, Higgins J, Sheiham A, Logan S. Combinations of topical fluorides (varnishes, gels, rinses, toothpastes) versus one topical fluoride for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2000;:. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd002781

Iheozor-Ejiofor Z, O'Malley L, Glenny A, Macey R, Alam R, Tugwell P, Walsh T, Welch V, Worthington H. Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013;:. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd010856

Marinho V, Worthington H, Walsh T, Chong L. Fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015;:. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd002280.pub2

Marinho V, Chong L, Worthington H, Walsh T. Fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016;:. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd002284.pub2

Takefuji Y. Dental fluoride policy in Japan. British Dental Journal 2019;227(2):71-71. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41415-019-0566-2

Srivastava S, Flora S. Fluoride in Drinking Water and Skeletal Fluorosis: a Review of the Global Impact. Current Environmental Health Reports 2020;7(2):140-146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40572-020-00270-9

MATSUDA K, HARADA U, IIJIMA Y, TAZAWA M, TAKAESU Y. The chemical components of drinking water in a dental fluorosis area, Kitatsugaru. JOURNAL OF DENTAL HEALTH 1977;27(1):8-14. https://doi.org/10.5834/jdh.27.8

ISHII T, KATO K, SAKAKIBARA Y. . JOURNAL OF DENTAL HEALTH 1982;32(2):78-102. https://doi.org/10.5834/jdh.32.78

IIJIMA Y, TAZAWA M, MATSUDA K, NARA Y, KUMETA T, TAKAESU Y. Epidemiological Study of Appearance of Dental Fluorosis Related to Fluoride Concentrations in Drinking Water in Kitatsugaru, Japan. JOURNAL OF DENTAL HEALTH 1978;28(3):285-294. https://doi.org/10.5834/jdh.28.285

IIJIMA Y, INABA D, MIYAZAWA M, TAZAWA M, KATAYAMA T. Stratigraphic analysis of fluoride concentration in soil from a fluoride area (Kitatsugaru).. JOURNAL OF DENTAL HEALTH 1985;35(3):378-383. https://doi.org/10.5834/jdh.35.378

Haresaku S, Aida J, Oishi K, Oishi E, Taura K, Tsutsui A, et al. Relationship between the Granitoid Distribution and Fluoride Level in Drinking Water. J Dent Health2011;61:203–8. https://doi.org/10.5834/jdh.61.2_203

US EPA O. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. US EPA 2013. https://www.epa.gov/risk/guidelines-carcinogen-risk-assessment .

US EPA O. Guidelines for Human Exposure Assessment. US EPA 2015. https://www.epa.gov/risk/guidelines-human-exposure-assessment.

Waugh D, Potter W, Limeback H, Godfrey M. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2016;13(3):259. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13030259

Qasemi M, Farhang M, Biglari H, Afsharnia M, Ojrati A, Khani F, Samiee M, Zarei A. Health risk assessments due to nitrate levels in drinking water in villages of Azadshahr, northeastern Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences 2018;77(23):. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7973-6

Rezaei H, Zarei A, Kamarehie B, Jafari A, Fakhri Y, Bidarpoor F, Karami M, Farhang M, Ghaderpoori M, Sadeghi H, Shalyari N. Levels, Distributions and Health Risk Assessment of Lead, Cadmium and Arsenic Found in Drinking Groundwater of Dehgolan’s Villages, Iran. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences 2019;11(1):54-62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13530-019-0388-2

Mohammadi A, Zarei A, Majidi S, Ghaderpoury A, Hashempour Y, Saghi M, Alinejad A, Yousefi M, Hosseingholizadeh N, Ghaderpoori M. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk assessment of heavy metals in drinking water of Khorramabad, Iran. MethodsX 2019;6:1642-1651. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.07.017

Perumal E, Paul V, Govindarajan V, Panneerselvam L. A brief review on experimental fluorosis. Toxicology Letters 2013;223(2):236-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.09.005

Keshavarz S, Ebrahimi A, Nikaeen M. Fluoride exposure and its health risk assessment in drinking water and staple food in the population of Dayyer, Iran, in 2013. J Educ Health Promot 2015;4. hhttps://doi:10.4103/2277-9531.171785

Pandith M, Malpe D, Rao A, Rao P. Aquifer wise seasonal variations and spatial distribution of major ions with focus on fluoride contamination-Pandharkawada block, Yavatmal district, Maharashtra, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 2016;188(2):. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-5027-z

Yousefi M, Asghari F, Zuccarello P, Oliveri Conti G, Ejlali A, Mohammadi A, Ferrante M. Spatial Distribution Variation and Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Exposure to Fluoride in Ground Water Supplies: A Case Study in an Endemic Fluorosis Region of Northwest Iran. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2019;16(4):564. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040564